Disease and stress continue to cause high economic loss in the raising, breeding and fattening of farm animals. This is particularly true in the poultry industry where livestock production is highly intensive, stocking densities are high and large numbers of birds are often concentrated in relatively small areas.
Poultry farmers are constantly trying to improve vaccination response and overcome immunosuppression. Aspects such as hygiene, sanitation, health, stress, environment and nutrition all play important roles in immunity. Certain viral infections such as Merek’s and Gumboro, toxins and other external agents are known to be immuno suppressors. While antibody titre levels are a routine method of measuring immune competence, they are not indicative of absolute immune status. Other predisposing factors can interfere with this mechanism and our knowledge of this relationship is far from complete.
This has led to the search for products which may increase the immunoresponse. The work with Vitamin E reported an enhancement of the humoral response in poultry when high levels of Vitamin E are fed. Field work has indicated an improvement in health by supplementing additional levels of Vitamin E in both breeding stock and young chicks.
The most important property of the immune system and its prime task is the recognition of foreign substances and their destruction, thus protecting the organism against detrimental influences by the environment. The immune system does not consist of a specific organ, and its protective function is the result of complex interactions between different organs. The gastro-intestinal tract plays an important role in this task. To fulfill the need of protecting the bird from enormous colonization by disease causing microorganisms, constant exposure to nutrients as well as to parasitic and viral substances, the gastrointestinal tract is equipped with a richly endowed local immune apparatus, exerting not only local but also systemic protective functions. The gastro-intestinal tract is therefore one of the most appropriate targets for use of new oral substances with immunomodulatory effects. This forms the basis for the concept of improving the immune status via nutrition and use of Perivac Plus.
Vitamin E deficiency produces conditions include encephalomalacia, exudative diathesis and nutritional muscular dystrophy in young chicks and growing birds.
Vitamin E has several different, through related functions; most important is an inter-and intra cellular antioxidant, preventing oxidation of unsaturated lipids within cells; deficiency causing abnormal formation or accumulation of excessive lipid hydroperoxides with resulting cell tissue damage. This protective role ensures erythrocyte stability and capillary blood vessel integrity.
There are a range of other functions, among them regulation of the pituitary-midbrain system, thus influencing thyroid and adrenal hormone output, nucleic acid metabolism, involvement in fertility and prevention of degenerative change in muscle and liver.
Vitamin E play a multiple role in poultry nutrition. It is required not only for normal reproduction but also as nature’s most effective antioxidant for prevention of Encephalomalacia. In a specific role interrelated with action of Selenium it prevents exudative diathesis, and in another role interrelated with Selenium and Cystine for prevention of nutritional muscular dystrophy.
Onset of exudative diathesis coincides with appearance of peroxides in tissues. The proposed theory is that Vitamin E in the capillary membranes and the Selenium containing enzyme Glutathione peroxidase in plasma protect the capillary membrane against oxidative damage. This may explain the dual role of Vitamin E and Selenium in prevention of exudative diathesis and other Vitamin E – Selenium responsive diseases.
Increased improvement in performance is observed from high Vitamin E containing diets fed to flocks with sub-clinical IBD, which is due to enhanced immuno-competence and increased resistance to disease. Under field conditions high dietary Vitamin E is most beneficial where there is a challenge to the hosts defence system and significant improvement in performance will occur more predictably under such conditions.
Perivac Plus – Selenium
Poultry suffer from a variety of clinical problems like pancreatic fibrosis and skin problems and an increase in diseases related to reduced immune competence from diets that are efficient in the essential mineral Selenium. Selenium has been shown to be an essential mineral for both chicks and poults. Selenium prevents development of exudative diathesis in young chickens. Vitamin E and Selenium have a mutual sparing effect in prevention of these diseases.
The most important biological activity of Selenium appears to be through the enzyme Glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px). In co-operation with Vitamin E and several other antioxidative agents. GSH-PX can reduce the destructive effects on living cells of peroxidative reactions. The antioxxidant effects of Selenium and Vitamin E are different, but nonetheless complementary. Vitamin E prevents formation of lipid peroxides by sequestering free radicals before they initiate lipid peroxidation. Meanwhile, Selenium, as an essential part of GSH, reduces already formed peroxides to less reactive alcohols.
Perivac Plus – Biotin
Recent studies have shown, that has been suspected of having a role in “Acute Death Syndrome” or “Sudden Death Syndrome” in broiler chickens. Biotin deficiency alters the unsaturated fatty acid profile in tissue lipids in such a manner as to suggest that it impairs the conversion of linoleic acid to arachidonic acid. The later is a precursor of the Prostaglandins, Prostocyclin and Thromboxane A-2, which have marked effects on the vascular system. The concentration of Biotin in liver was reported to be depressed in chicks that exhibited acute death syndrome. It is reported that dietary Biotin reduced the incidence of acute death syndrome in broiler chicks.
Immuno suppression and Gangrenous Dermatitis in Poultry
The bacteria which cause gangrenous dermatitis, sometimes known as blue wing disease, necrotic dermatitis or wing rot condition are C. Septicum, C. Perifringens and Staph aureus. But in many cases Gangrenous Dermatitis occurs as a sequel to other predisposing factors. These may include a variety of Gumboro (Infectious Bursal Disease) pathotypes, Avian adenovirus, including inclusion Body Hepatitis (IBH) and chick anaemia agent (CAA) viral agents. Immunosuppression due to mycotoxins and Gumboro viral infection also seems responsible for the disease.
The Problem usually occurs in grower birds of about 6-12 weeks of age on account of clostridial bacterial infection. Incidence is relatively higher in faulty cages and caused by prior and consistent exposure of aflatoxins and other mycotoxins.
Supplementation of Biotin through drinking water or feed to unaffected and affected flocks along with Vitamin E would be useful to minimize and eliminate wing-rot problems.
Perivac Plus is a potent combination of Vitamin E, Selenium and Biotin BIOSYNERGISTICALLY inhibits prostaglandin secretion and increases antibody production to enhance both humoral and cell mediated immunity.
The right synergistic combination of Vitamin E, Biotin, selenium available in Perivac Plus helps achieve the following in Poultry and Livestock.
Enhanced IMMUNE RESPONSE
Improved fertility and hatchability in parent flocks Improved muscle tone and in problems of leg weakness
Improved antibody titer and enhanced immune status not only against bacterial and viral diseases but also against coccidiosis
Significantly influence carbohydrate metabolism, fatty acid synthesis, protein synthesis, amino acid deamination, purine skynthesis and nucleic acid metabolism.
As an aid to help in cases of Encephalomalacia and Exudative diathesis in poultry.
In feed as a protector of essential fatty acids as well as Vitamin A and D3.
Perical plus is available as Feed Supplement for use in feeds and also as Perivac Plus Liquid Concentrate for use through water.
Perivac Plus feed supplement
Each 200 gram contains:
Vitamin E : 20 gm
Biotin : 160 mg
Selenium : 50 mg
Carrier : QS
Chicks, Growers, Layers and Commercial Broilers:
200 gm / tonne of feed for 5 days.
500 gm to 1.0 kg / tonne of feed for 5 days
Or as advised by Consultant Veterinarian
200 gm and 1.0 kg HDPE containers.